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1.Mosque

A Minaret is used by the crier to call prayer to Allah five times each day

The Ablutions fountain is where the Muslim people performed a cleansing ritual before entering prayer

The porch dome is where Muslims believe Muhammad ascended into Heaven

The Central Nave is where the chief of the Mosque prays

A Mihrab Dome is a room that indicates the direction of Mecca

Qibia Wall should be in the direction of Mecca

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2. Art(pictures above)

The reason people are not seen in Islamic art is because Allah sees people as a distraction from praying.

3.Call to prayer

hijab1

4.Female’s veils

Differences: Burqa cover smost of the face except for a slit or hole for the eyes.

The Afghan burqa covers the entire body, obscuring the face completely, except for a grille or netting over the eyes to allow the wearer to see. But the Hijabs only covers the women’s hair and head but people can be seen the face.

Purposes: A variety of headdresses worn by Muslim women and girls in accordance with hijab are sometimes referred to as veils. The principal aim of the Muslim veil is to hide. Many of these garments cover the hair, ears and throat, but do not cover the face.

Where are Burqas worn and why? : Under the ultra-conservative Taliban, women were forced to wear the burqa whenever they appeared in public, supposedly in adherence to Islam. Burqa has its origins in Bedouin tradition.

There are so many different kinds of veils as the picture shown above. Because different Islamic countries have different cultures of wearing and different climates, so the veils have been developing during history.

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5.Sunni&Shia

The division between Shia and Sunni dates back to the death of the Prophet Muhammad, and the question of who was to take over the leadership of the Muslim nation. Sunni Muslims agree with the position taken by many of the Prophet’s companions, that the new leader should be elected from among those capable of the job. This is what was done, and the Prophet Muhammad’s close friend and advisor, Abu Bakr, became the first Caliph of the Islamic nation. The word “Sunni” in Arabic comes from a word meaning “one who follows the traditions of the Prophet.”

On the other hand, some Muslims share the belief that leadership should have stayed within the Prophet’s own family, among those specifically appointed by him, or among Imams appointed by God Himself.

The Shia Muslims believe that following the Prophet Muhammad’s death, leadership should have passed directly to his cousin/son-in-law, Ali bin Abu Talib. Throughout history, Shia Muslims have not recognized the authority of elected Muslim leaders, choosing instead to follow a line of Imams which they believe have been appointed by the Prophet Muhammad or God Himself. The word “Shia” in Arabic means a group or supportive party of people. The commonly-known term is shortened from the historical “Shia-t-Ali,” or “the Party of Ali.” They are also known as followers of “Ahl-al-Bayt” or “People of the Household” (of the Prophet).

Religious Texts and Practices

Shia Muslims also feel animosity towards some of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad, based on their positions and actions during the early years of discord about leadership in the community. Many of these companions (Abu Bakr, Umar ibn Al Khattab, Aisha, etc.) have narrated traditions about the Prophet’s life and spiritual practice. Shia Muslims reject these traditions (hadith) and do not base any of their religious practices on the testimony of these individuals. This naturally gives rise to some differences in religious practice between the two groups. These differences touch all detailed aspects of religious life: prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, etc.

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6.Islamism&Islamists

Islamism’s goals? The faith, doctrine, or cause of Islam. A popular reform movement advocating the reordering of government and society in accordance with laws prescribed by Islam

What is Sharia? Shari’a is an Arabic word meaning “path” or “way.” Today the term is used most commonly to mean “Islamic law,” the detailed system of religious law developed by Muslim scholars in the first three centuries of Islam and still in force among fundamentalists today.

Shari’a tries to describe in detail all possible human acts, dividing them into permitted (halal) and prohibited (haram). It subdivides them into various degrees of good or evil such as obligatory, recommended, neutral, objectionable or forbidden. This vast compendium of rules regulates all matters of devotional life, worship, ritual purity, marriage and inheritance, criminal offenses, commerce and personal conduct. It also regulates the governing of the Islamic state and its relations to non-Muslims within the state as well as to enemies outside the state. Shari’a influences the behavior and worldview of most Muslims, even in secular states where it forms no part of the law of the land.

Islam teaches that shari’a, as God’s revealed law, perfect and eternal, is binding on individuals, society and state in all its details. By logical extension, any criticism of shari’a is heresy. Muslims who deny the validity of shari’a in any way are labeled as non-Muslims (infidels) or apostates (those who convert to another religion) by traditionalists and Islamists. As such, they face the threat of being prosecuted for apostasy, a crime that carries the death penalty in shari’a.

The mandates of shari’a are extremely harsh compared to modern Western standards. They infringe on many modern principles of human rights, religious freedom, and equality of all before the law. For example:

Hudud punishments are the severe penalities prescribed by shari’a for offenses defined as being against God himself. The punishments for these crimes are seen as divinely ordained and cannot be changed by humans. These include 100 lashes or stoning to death as punishment for adultery; 80 lashes for false accusation of adultery; amputation of limbs for theft; 40 or 80 lashes for drinking alcohol; imprisonment, amputation or death (by crucifixion in serious cases) for highway robbery; and the death penalty for apostasy from Islam. Methods of execution for apostasy can include decapitation, crucifixion, burning, strangling, drowning, impaling, and flaying. Apostates are denied a decent burial after their deaths, and the Muslims who participate in killing them are promised an eternal reward in paradise.

Discrimination on the basis of religion is fundamental to shari’a. By religious edict, Islam must be dominant; only Muslims are considered to be full citizens. Jews and Christians are defined as dhimmis (literally “protected” i.e. permitted to live). However this protection is on condition that they do not bear arms, know their lowly place in society, treat Muslims with respect, and pay a special poll tax (jizya).

Shari‘a divides the world into two opposing domains: the House of Islam (Dar al-Islam) and the House of War (Dar al-Harb). Muslims are supposed to wage jihad to change the House of War (where non-Muslims are dominant) into the House of Islam, dominated by Muslims. While some modern Muslims reject this aggressive understanding of jihad, and see it merely as a strengthening of personal faith, most agree that jihad includes defending Muslim territory and Muslims from any form of aggression; this leaves the door open to interpreting any conflict involving Muslims as a case of defensive jihad. Islamic terror groups justify their atrocities by references to the shari’a rules on jihad.

Shari’a discriminates on the basis of gender. Men are regarded as superior. Women are treated as deficient in intelligence, morals and religion, and must therefore be protected from their own weaknesses. Shari’a rules enforce modesty in dress and behavior and the segregation of the sexes. These regulations place women under the legal guardianship of their male relatives. Women are inherently of less value than men in many legal rulings. A man is allowed up to four wives, but women can have only one husband. A man can divorce his wife easily; a woman faces great obstacles should she want a divorce from her husband. A daughter inherits half as much as a son, and the testimony of a female witness in court is worth only half that of a male witness. In cases of murder, the compensation for a woman is less than that given for a man.

Why might Western countries see Islamists as a threat? International community has become aware of the threat of resurgent Islamist terrorism. The jihadist campaign has spread throughout the world from Afghanistan and Pakistan to the African continent, portending ambitions for conquests in the Western world. The Islamists begin practice extreme Islam and put it in an extreme use to conquer other parts of the world and join wars.

Works Cited

about.com Islam. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2013. <http://islam.about.com/cs/divisions/f/shia_sunni.htm&gt;.

about.islam. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Mar. 2013. <http://islam.about.com/od/mosques/tp/architecture_parts.htm&gt;.

discoverthenetworks.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2013. <http://www.discoverthenetworks.org/viewSubCategory.asp?id=774&gt;.

Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Mar. 2013. <http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=islamic+art&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=KOU1T132UrcT6M&tbnid=OOXwQCbWsq5d3M:&ved=0CAQQjB0&url=http%3&gt;.

megmoon. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Mar. 2013. <http://megmoon.hubpages.com/hub/The-Main-Features-of-a-Mosque&gt;.

merriam-webster. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Mar. 2013. <http://visual.merriam-webster.com/society/religion/mosque_2.php&gt;.

public intelligence blog. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://www.phibetaiota.net/2011/04/graphic-global-sunni-shiite-distribution/&gt;.

REAL OPERA BURQA HOUSE. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=DzTMy4F4VmIV5M&tbnid=G7nD6kQskg4PcM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.taylornoakes.com%2F2011%2F04%2F15%2Fre-the-burqa-ban-what-do-you-think%2F&ei=a3IuUYbbB8WFyQGQv4HgAw&bvm=bv.42965579,d.eWU&psig=AFQjCNHPmHIsGQ7XUqPW0RNKKFw-wVLgog&ust=1362084798690630&gt;.

technorati. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://technorati.com/politics/article/the-french-ban-on-niqab-and/&gt;.

times topic. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2013. <http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/organizations/s/al-shabab/index.html&gt;.

Why do some cultures require women to wear veils? N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. <http://people.howstuffworks.com/veil3.htm&gt;.

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